DNA nanotechnology :
DNA nanotechnology is a field of the study with brilliant properties to recognize molecules of different kinds. Its a branch of sciences which deals directly with the atomic particles of any substance. They are used to design appropriate and desired structure which can be controlled at any given point. This is one of the useful technologies which has great applications in the field of biological sciences and chemistry. Most of the times it is used for genetics recognition.
How Dna nanotechnology works ?
DNA nanotechnology uses of DNA building blocks to develop new complex DNA structures with powerful characteristics. DNA is usually a straight and smooth molecule, whose total axis is unbranched. but DNA particles having junctions can also be created. For instance four armed structure junction can made further complementary molecules. the basic purpose of this technology is to give a target structure and complex functional characteristics makes it different from other dominant technologies, it was designed to determine the sequence of molecules and to discover their family. DNA nanotechnology detects the assembling sequence and then, collectively find out the junctions if any. after tracking the assembled sequence the kind of molecules are communicated to the other peripheral device, if attached. Different kind of approaches are used to design and manage the DNA sequences for obtaining the desired structure.
Design approaches of Dna nanotechnology
There are several approaches in which DNA strcutures can be designed some of them are listed below.
§ Tile-based structural Approach
§ Folding structural approach
§ Kinetic assembling
§ Sequence design
1) Tile based structures
In these type of structural approach the DNA molecules are designed in tiled architecture. The most common example of this approach is DX molecule in which two dimensional arrays are drawn at top and bottom in sequence of four tiles. Tile based approach is one of the earliest approach which was used to design the DNA structures every shape represents a sticky end for the next molecule. Discrete units can be constructed with this method. This design method has a capability to conceptualize and design even the largest assemblies assigned to it. This distinguishing feature makes DNA nanotechnology fully beneficial in the self assembly and computational functioning.
2) Folding structural approach
Another but opposite approach to tile based approach is folding approach. Arbitrary sequences and two dimensional complex molecular arrangements can be converted into desired shape with the help of folding structural approach. simpler strands participates in folding structures.
3) Kinetic assembling
Another useful approach to design the molecular structure regardless of the sequence and position is the kinetic assembly in which molecules are assembled with minimum thermodynamics sequence. DNA self assembly is one of the examples of this kind and is this method is widely used in thermodynamic applications.
Another approach is sequence design in which molecules are designed in a specific provided sequence to produce DNA design. Nuclear acids are the example of sequential designing approach.
Applications of DNA Technology
DNA nanotechnology focuses the development of new molecular arrangements with enhanced characteristics along with modified structures .They are used in many important work areas where this technology is facilitating the world. Kidney trackers, molecular match makers, machines for managing the nuclear reactions all are the applications of DNA nanotechnology. Some of the mechanical devices are also present such as molecular tweezers, stimulus that is used in Nano robotics, B DNA for responding the change in buffer conditions during the procedures.
DNA nanotechnology is one of the important technology which has great uses in the chemical , molecular sciences and security sectors. The most important advantage of DNA technology is in the curing of fatal diseases, which makes it accusable by the researchers and doctors. Leading countries in the technological areas are working hard for advancements and development in DNA science.